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About Islamabad
Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan, is the tenth largest city of Pakistan. The metropolitan area of Islamabad is the third largest in Pakistan with over 1,875,000 inhabitants. It nestles against the backdrop of the Margalla Hills at the northern end of Pothowar Plateau. It offers a healthy climate, pollution free atmosphere with lashing green trees, affluent rills and tranquil areas. It is full of large houses, elegant public buildings and well-organized shopping malls. The roads are wide and decked with plentiful grass and roses. There are rare crowds or traffic jams on the roads. The walkways are shaded and separated from the traffic by rows of massive trees.

It is a well modernized city with great examples of gigantic buildings. The city is divided into eight basic zones administrative, diplomatic enclave, residential areas, and educational sectors, industrial sectors, and commercial areas, rural and green areas. Each sector has its own shopping area and public park.
So it is also grooming in real estate, education, infrastructure, telecom sector, road safety, fashion industry, services industry, IT sector and human resource department. Therefore, life here is very enjoyable. There are all the facilities of modern life, which are right at your palm top as soon as you wish to acquire them. Islamabad has the privilege of perfect atmosphere and geographical position which makes it highly attractive for the tourists.

Early History
The city of Islamabad, though relatively young, has thousands of years of pre-construction history. Islamabad Capital Territory, located in the Pothohar Plateau, is regarded to be one of the earliest sites of human settlement in Asia. Situated at one end of the Indus Valley Civilization, this area was the first habitation of the Aryan community from Central Asia. Islamabad was one of the routes though which the armies from the north and northwest passed to invade the Indian Subcontinent. Many great armies such as those of Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, Timur and King Abdali have used this route on their way to Indian Subcontinent. Relics and human skulls have been found dating back to 5000 B.C. that show this region was home to Stone Age people who used the banks of Swaan River as their settlement. Modern Islamabad is based on the old settlement known as Saidpur.
Rawat Fort was built in the 16th Century. It lies near Islamabad on the Grand Trunk Road Panoramic view of Pharwala Fort
near Islamabad beside the Swaan River
Construction and Development
In 1958, a commission was constituted to select a suitable site for the national capital with particular emphasis on location, climate, logistics and defence requirements along with other attributes. After extensive study, research, and thorough review of various sites, the commission recommended the area northeast of Rawalpindi. A Greek firm of architects Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis designed the master plan of the city which was triangular in shape, based on a Grid plan, with its apex towards the Margalla Hills.

17 major changes have been made in the Master Plan of Islamabad since the Greek architects Doxiadis Associates prepared it in 1960.

Geography and climate
Islamabad is located at 33°26'N 73°02'E? / ?33.43°N 73.04°E? / 33.43; 73.04 at the edge of the Pothohar Plateau on the foot of the Margalla Hills in Islamabad Capital Territory. It is situated at an elevation of 507 meters (1,663 ft). The modern capital and the ancient Gakhar city of Rawalpindi stand side by side and are therefore commonly referred to as the Twin Cities. On the East of the city lies Murree and Kotli Sattian. Kahuta lies on the North East, Taxila, Wah Cantt, and Attock District on the North West, Gujar Khan, Kallar Syedian, Rawat, and Mandrah on the North East, Rawalpindi on the South West, and NWFP on the West.

The capital area of the Islamabad city is 906 square kilometers (349.8 sq mi). A further 2,717 square kilometers (1,049.0 sq mi) area is known as the Specified Area, with the Margala Hills in the north and northeast. The southern portion of the city is an undulating plain. It is drained by the Kurang River, on which the Rawal Dam is located.

Islamabad's micro-climate is regulated by three artificial reservoirs; Rawal, Simli, and Khanpur Dam. Khanpur Dam is located on the Haro River near the town of Khanpur (NWFP), about 40 kilometers (25 mi) from Islamabad. Simli Dam is located around 30 kilometers (19 mi)) north of Islamabad. 220 acres (0.9 kmē) of the city is covered with Margalla Hill National Park. Along the Islamabad Higway, Loi Bher Forest is situated, covering an area of 1,087 acres (4.4 kmē).
The city overall has an extreme climate. The hottest months are from May to July. The monsoon season occurs during July and August, with heavy rainfalls. Winters occur from October to March and are and fairly cold with sparse snowfall over the hills. The weather ranges from a minimum of −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) in January to a maximum of 46.1 °C (115.0 °F) in June.[18] The average low is 2 °C (35.6 °F) in January, while the average high is 40 °C (104.0 °F) in June.[19] The highest temperature recorded was 46.6 °C (115.9 °F) in June 2005, while the lowest temperature was −0.6 °C (30.9 °F) in March 1967. On 23 July 2001, Islamabad received a record breaking 620 mm of rainfall in 10 hours. It was the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad in 100 years.
Islamabad is home to many migrants from other regions of Pakistan and has a surprising cultural and religious diversity of considerable antiquity. Due to its location in the Pothohar Plateau, remnants of ancient cultures and civilizations such as Aryan, Soanian, and Indus Valley civilization can still be found in the region. A 15th century Gakhar fort, Pharwala Fort, is located near Islamabad which was built on the remains of a 10th century Hindu fort. Rawat Fort in the region was built by the Gakhars in 16th century where the grave of Gakhar chief, Sultan Sarang Khan, is located. Saidpur Village in Islamabad is named after Said Khan, the son of Sultan Sarang Khan who was a Gakhar chief.
The 500 year old village was converted into the a place of Hindu worship by a Mughal Commander, Raja Man Singh. He constructed a number of small ponds; Rama kunda, Sita kunda, Lakshaman kunda, and Hanuman kunda in the area. The region hosts many Hindu temples that are still preserved showing the remains of Hindu civilization and architecture in the region. The shrine of Sufi Mystic, Pir Meher Ali Shah, is located at Golra Sharif which has a rich cultural heritage of pre-Islamic period. Archaeological remains of the Buddhist era can still be found in the region. The shrine of Bari Imam was built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Thousands of devotees from across Pakistan attend the annual Urs of Bari Imam. The event is one of the largest religious gatherings in Islamabad. In 2004, the Urs was attended by more than 1.2 million people. The Lok Virsa in Islamabad preserves the living folk and traditional culture of Pakistan. The Folk Heritage Museum, located near Shakarparian hills, has a large display of embroidered costumes, jewelery, woodwork, black printing, ivory, and bone work from the region and other parts of Pakistan.
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