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About Kaula Lumpur - Malaysia
 
The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία.[15] The word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively.[16][17][18] "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula.[19][20][21][22][23] Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to steadily accelerate or run. This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra.[24] The name was later adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra.[25][26] Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu" ("Malay Land").[27][28] Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race.[29][30] Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he later proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area commonly known as the East Indies".[31] In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.[32] In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and smaller islands that lie between these areas. About Dubai
 
History

Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.[38] In the Malay Peninsular, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos.[39] Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries. Their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, and the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fourth or fifth century.[40] The Kingdom of Langkasuka arose around the second century in the northern area of the Malay Peninsula, lasting until about the 15th century.[34] Between the 7th and 13th centuries, much of the southern Malay Peninsula was part of the maritime Srivijaya Empire. After the fall of Srivijaya, the Majapahit Empire had influence over most of Peninsular Malaysia and the Malay Archipelago.[41] Islam began to spread among Malays in the 14th century.[4] In the early 15th century, Parameswara, a prince of the former Srivijayan Empire, founded the Malacca Sultanate, commonly considered the first independent state in the peninsula area.[42] Malacca was an important commercial centre during this time, attracting trade from around the region.
History of Dubai
 
Government and politics

Malaysia is a federal constitutional elective monarchy, and the only federation in Southeast Asia. The system of government is closely modelled on that of the Westminster parliamentary system, a legacy of British colonial rule.[58] The head of state is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, commonly referred to as the King. The King is elected to a five-year term by and from among the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states; the other four states, which have titular Governors, do not participate in the selection. By informal agreement the position is systematically rotated among the nine,[58] and has been held by Abdul Halim of Kedah since December 2011.[59] The King's role has been largely ceremonial since changes to the constitution in 1994, picking ministers and members of the upper house.[60] Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures. The bicameral federal parliament consists of the lower house, the House of Representatives and the upper house, the Senate.[61] The 222-member House of Representatives is elected for a maximum term of five years from single-member constituencies. All 70 senators sit for three-year terms; 26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies, and the remaining 44 are appointed by the King upon the Prime Minister's recommendation.
Gepgraphy of Dubai
 
Foreign relations and military

A founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the country participates in many international organisations such as the United Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Developing 8 Countries, and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). It has chaired ASEAN, the OIC, and the NAM in the past. A former British colony, it is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Kuala Lumpur was the site of the first East Asia Summit in 2005. Malaysia's foreign policy is officially based on the principle of neutrality and maintaining peaceful relations with all countries, regardless of their political system. The government attaches a high priority to the security and stability of Southeast Asia, and seeks to further develop relations with other countries in the region. Historically the government has tried to portray Malaysia as a progressive Islamic nation while strengthening relations with other Islamic states. A strong tenet of Malaysia's policy is national sovereignty and the right of a country to control its domestic affairs. The policy towards territorial disputes by the government is one of pragmatism, with the government solving disputes in a number of ways, such as bringing the case to the International Court of Justice. The Spratly Islands are disputed by many states in the area, and the entirety of the South China Sea is claimed by China. Nevertheless, unlike its neighbours of Vietnam and the Philippines, Malaysia has avoided any conflicts with China. Brunei and Malaysia in 2009 announced an end to claims of each other's land, and to resolve issues related to their maritime borders. The Philippines has a dormant claim to the eastern part of Sabah. Singapore's land reclamation has caused tensions, and maritime border disputes exist with Indonesia.
Gepgraphy of Dubai
 
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Sponsors
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Media Partners
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Old Int'l Conferences
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